The Problem: “‘Root’, ‘stem’ and ‘base’ are all terms used in the literature to designate that part of a word that remains when all affixes have been removed. intrastate - existing in one state; intravenous - inside or into a vein; introvert - shy person who keeps within him/herself. Q PREFIXES and SUFFIXES are almost always dependent morphemes—i.e., they can’t stand alone as words. Drug Names – Stems, Prefixes, Roots and Suffixes. homogeneous - of the same nature or kind; homonym - sounding alike; homeopath - a therapy that is based on treating "same with same". xenophobic - afraid of foreigners; xenogenesis - the creation of offspring that is completely different from either parent; xenophile - attracted to foreigners. conjunction - a word that joins parts of sentences; disjunction - a disconnection; junction - a place where two things join. neoclassic - a revival of classic form, neocolonialism - the indirect ("new") economical and political control of a region by a more powerful foreign power; neonatal - a newborn child, especially the first few weeks. In the primary structure of the dicot stem, the outermost layer is the epidermis. ramification - the resulting consequence of a decision; ramify - to spread or branch out; ramus - a branchlike part. bibliomania - a crazy love of books; egomania - a mad love of oneself; maniac an insane person. Two Roots: Some words have two roots. in foolishness, if the affix is -ish, the stem is fool, and if the affix in question September - this used to be the seventh month in the Roman calendar; septet - a group of seven musicians; septuagenarian - a person in his/her seventies. inspire - to stimulate or animate; transpire - to give of vapor with waste product through the skin or a membrane; spirit - invisible life force. By the way stem words are words that cannot be added more affixes and which contains or not some of them. parachute - protection from falling; parasol - an umbrella used to protect from the sun; paternal - relating to fathers; paternity - fatherhood; patriarch - a man who rules a group. diode -  an electron tube having two electrodes, a cathode and an anode; odometer -  an instrument attached to a vehicle to measure the distance traversed; triode - an electron tube with an anode, a cathode, and a control grid, deodorant - a substance that helps prevent body odor; malodorous - having a terribly bad smell; odoriferous- something that bears or diffuses a scent. motion - the act of moving; motivate - to move someone to action; promote to move someone forward; removable - able to be taken or carried away. In short, words are composed of parts called morphemes, and each morpheme contributes meaning to the word. hemorrhage - clotting of the blood; hemorrhoids - swelling of the blood vessels; hemoglobin - red blood particle. pedal - a lever pushed by the foot; pedestrian - one who walks; pedicure - cosmetic treatment of feet and toes. Keep in mind that teachers don’t need to teach their students this entire model. The root is the core of the word, once all affixes are removed. medieval - pertaining to the Middle Ages; medium - in the middle; mediocre - only of medium (inferior) quality. But all teachers will want to understand this entire model. vice-president - the person next in rank to the president. Although I may not teach my students the entire model, at least the concepts are straight in my mind. juvenile - youthful or childish; rejuvenate - to bring back to youthful strength or appearance. heptagon - a shape with seven angles and seven sides; Heptateuch - the first seven books of the Old Testament; heptameter - a line of verse consisting of seven metrical feet. submarine - an underwater boat; submerge - to put underwater; substandard - inferior to accepted standards. Steam Steam is a word element to which… Here are a few examples: 2. Let me research this. confusion - being flooded with too much information that is hard to make sense of; fuse - to melt by heating; infuse - to put into. digression - a departure from the main issue, subject; disappear - to move out of sight; dissect - to cut apart piece by piece. This lets me find teaching moments and ensures that I can answer my students’ questions clearly and consistently. This model holds up across the curriculum. metropolis - a large city; police - people who work for the government to maintain order in a city; politics - actions of a government or political party. conformity- correspondence in form, manner, or character; formation- something that is formed; reformatory- intended for reformation. midriff - the area between the chest and the waist; midterm - middle of a term in school; midway - halfway between. accelerate - to increase the speed of; accessible - easily entered, approached, or obtained; admittance - allowing into; acrobat - a "high walker"; acronym - a word formed from the first (capital) letters of a word; acrophobia - fear of height, perceive - to take notice of something; captivating - taking hold of, cauterize - to burn with a hot instrument; caustic - capable of burning or eating away; holocaust - total devastation, especially by fire. To be clear, we can add a prefix or suffix to every base even if it already has a prefix or suffix. ; herbivorous - plant-eating; herbal - relating to plants. It is the fastest, most effective way to teach students organized multi-paragraph writing… Guaranteed! Root Words are the building blocks of a word. The root is a set of consonants arranged in a kilobyte - 1,000 bytes; kilometer - 1,000 meter; kilograms - 1,000 grams. semiannual - every half year; semicircle - half a circle; semiconscious - partly conscious; semiannual - every half of a year. applaud- to show approval of especially by clapping the hands; explosion- an act of exposing something as invalid or baseless; plausible- worthy of being applauded. Morphemes are the smallest unit of language that contains meaning. octagon - a figure with 8 sides and 8 angles; octogenarian - person in his or her 80s; octopus - sea animal with 8 arms. 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